## Keep It Quiet!

### Sandi KingBay District Schools

#### Description

How can a container be soundproofed? Learning about sound waves and how they behave in various media will enable students to create a soundproofed container.

#### Objectives

The student selects an appropriate measurement unit for labeling the solution to real-world problems.

The student selects and uses the appropriate tool for situational measures (for example, measuring sticks, scales and balances, thermometers, measuring cups, gauges).

The student solves problems involving equations or simple inequalities using manipulatives, diagrams, or models, symbolic expressions, or written phrases.

The student translates problem-solving situations into expressions and equations using a variable for the unknown.

The student knows that velocity describes a change in distance over time.

The student understands that waves behave differently in different media (for example, water, a wall, the atmosphere, a vacuum).

#### Materials

Copies of Summative Assessment #1, Racing Velocity from the unit’s attached file, one per student
- Copies of the Formative Assessment Checklists from the unit’s attached file and used in previous lessons in this unit
- Copies of Summative Assessment #4, I Can’t Hear You from the unit’s attached file, one per student
- Vocabulary words and definitions from the attached file, 4 sets
- A copy of the Wave chart from the attached file
- A pocket chart that will hold ten words and definitions
- Unit question, scenario, and responsibility charts from previous day’s lessons
- Copy of the Frequency X Wavelength = Wave speed chart
- Five copies of the Wave Behavior Data Sheet from the attached file
- Large clock with a second hand that is visible to all students
- Five tools to measure centimeters
- Five disposable pie plates (other containers can be used as long as each station has the same container so that containers do not become a variable in the experiment)
- One-half gallon of water
- One-half gallon of ice water with as much ice as possible, crushed ice if possible
- One-half gallon of buttermilk
- Two large boxes of pudding, prepared and firm
- One half gallon of sand or dirt
- Five pennies (other coins can be used as long as each group has the same coin so that coins do not become a variable in the experiment)
- Copies of the Soundproofing information from the attached file, one per student plus one to be posted in the classroom.
- A portable radio or CD player
- Materials already in the classroom that may be used to soundproof such as sweaters, jackets, paper towels, book bags.
- Pictures of simple machines in the real world from the lesson plan, Machines Help

#### Preparations

1. Download, print, and duplicate Summative Assessment #1, Racing Velocity from the unit’s attached file, one per student.
2. Locate copies of the Formative Assessment Checklists from the unit’s attached file and used in previous lessons in this unit.
3. Download, print, and duplicate Summative Assessment #4, I Can’t Hear You from the unit’s attached file, one per student.
4. Download, print, and duplicate vocabulary words and definitions from the attached file. You will need 4 sets.
5. Download and print a copy of the Wave chart from the attached file.
6. Locate a pocket chart that will hold ten words and definitions.
7. Have on display the Unit question, scenario, and responsibility charts from previous day’s lessons.
8. Download and print a copy of the Frequency X Wavelength = Wave speed chart from the attached file.
9. Download, print, and duplicate five copies of the Wave Behavior Data Sheet from the attached file.
10. Locate areas in the classroom where five centers may be set up. Each center must accomodate about five students observing the experiment housed at that center.
11. Cover the surface used for the center (table top, counter top, etc.) with newspaper and have paper towels readily available for any accidents.
12. Locate a large clock with a second hand that is visible to all students.
13. Locate five tools to measure centimeters. Hard rulers will work best as they wash easily. Place one measuring tool at each center.
14. Locate five disposable pie plates. Other containers can be used as long as each station has the same container so that containers do not become a variable in the experiment. Place one container at each center.
15. Measure one-half gallon of water and pour into a pie plate at one center.
16. Measure one half gallon of ice water with as much ice as possible, crushed ice if possible and pour into a pie plate at one center.
17. Measure one-half gallon of buttermilk and pour into a pie plate at one center.
18. Prepare two large boxes of pudding and pour into a pie plate at one center.
19. Measure one-half gallon of sand or dirt and pour into a pie plate at one center.
20. Locate five pennies. Other coins can be used as long as each group has the same coin so that coins do not become a variable in the experiment. Place one coin at each center.
21. Select pictures of a simple machine in the real world to discuss each day. These pictures are available from the lesson plan, Machines Help.
22. Download, print, and duplicate the Soundproofing information from the attached file. You need one per student plus one to be posted in the classroom.
23. Locate a portable radio or CD player.

#### Procedures

Note: This is lesson five of seven in the Beacon Learning Center unit, A Television in My Room. This science lesson is to be done on the seven through nine days of the unit.

Assessment –
Before beginning this lesson, give the unit Summative Assessment #1, Racing Velocity.

Reminder: This lesson plan introduces and teaches the standard that addresses wave behavior in various media. Although sound waves are used in this lesson adding real world applications for studying wave behavior, this is not a lesson on sound. Emphasize wave behavior in all activities using sound waves as the teaching instrument.

Session One: (Day seven of the unit)

1. Gain the students’ attention by showing one of the pictures of simple machines in the real world. Ask what kind of simple machine is shown and what task it makes possible. Mark the formative assessment checklists.

Making everything relevant –

2. Ask students to think about a sound that has bothered them while they are trying to do their homework. Perhaps it is the sound of the lawn mower, mom yelling at your little brother, or the sound of a loud television. Pose the question: Wouldn’t it be great if you could have a quiet room where you could read without noise bothering you?

3. Review the unit question and scenario from the lesson plan, Responsibility, completed on day two of the unit and now on display on the wall of the classroom.

4. Review the charts on display that list ways to be responsible to self and others.

5. Review the chart that displays the two ways that were chosen as the main ways to demonstrate responsibility to others involving having a television in our own room. Those are: 1) The television must be turned off when I leave the room or fall asleep. 2) The volume will not bother others.

6. Remind students of their project, a machine that will turn off the television. Review the rubric and due date for Summative Assessment #3.

7. Ask students if they are ready to focus on the second way to show responsibility: sound and how to keep their televisions from being heard in other rooms of the house and bothering others.

Science

8. Since most of these vocabulary words are new to the students, and since science time has already been spent on administering summative assessment #1, Racing Velocity, today’s science lesson will be spent learning new vocabulary and incorporating reading strategies with science words.

9. Display the vocabulary words and definitions: sound, wave, amplitude, wavelength, frequency, hertz, trough, crest, wave speed, vibrate, oscillate, and mechanical waves in a pocket chart. Words and definitions are available from the attached file.

10. Discuss each of the vocabulary words and definitions using the Waves chart and Frequency X Wavelength chart from the attached file where illustrations are needed. Post both charts on the word wall for students to use as a strategy for understanding and remembering the vocabulary words.

11. Remove the words from the pocket chart. Distribute the vocabulary words to various students. Ask a student to read a definition from the pocket chart. The student with the word that matches the definition read places the word in the chart beside the definition. Continue until all the words have been matched to their definitions. As students are posting the words, give verbal formative feedback explaining why the match is correct, directing students to use the Wave chart, or any other clues that will help cement the words and definitions in students' memories. Anytime a real-world application can be made, memory is assisted.

12. Repeat the procedure above except leave the words in the pocket chart and distribute the definitions.

13. Display the words and definitions on the unit word wall.

14. Play a game of “We Are Related.”

* Divide the class into three groups. Give each group a set of vocabulary words.

* Students place the word wave in the center of a desk or table. The remaining words are placed in a pile face down on the table. Each group member, in turn, selects the word from the top of the pile and if a relationship between the word drawn and a word showing on the desk can be explained, the word is added to the maze, touching the word that the new word is related to. All other words are to be added domino style, but must touch only words that they are related to. For instance, hertz can touch frequency since frequency is measured in hertz, but hertz cannot touch trough as there is not a relationship between these two words. If no relationship can be explained, the word is held until the person’s next turn. A maximum of four words may touch the word wave.

* Each member of the group gets a turn to pick a word and explain a relationship. This is a group effort, so relationships should be discussed among members of the group before the word is arranged. An example of a word arrangement is available from the attached file.

* Allow about five minutes for students to arrange their words, discussing relationships as they arrange. At the end of the time, ask one member of a group to explain the relationship of the word he/she added. Continue calling on students to tell which word they added and to explain the relationship to the word/words their new word is touching.

* As the groups are arranging their vocabulary words, circulate and ask students about their words and relationships. Give formative feedback by restating why students are correct or guiding them towards a correct relationship.

15. Students complete their daily journal entries by discussing what they have learned about waves.

16. Write formative notes in the journals to affirm student understanding or to guide students towards correct understanding. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklists to reflect students’ understanding of vocabulary and beginning understanding of waves.

Session Two: (Day eight of the unit)

17. Gain the students’ attention by showing one of the pictures of simple machines in the real world. Ask what kind of simple machine is shown and what task it makes possible. Mark the formative assessment checklists.

Making everything relevant –

18. Review the unit question and scenario from the lesson plan, Responsibility, completed on day two of the unit and now on display on the wall of the classroom.

19. Review the chart that displays the two ways that were chosen as the main ways to demonstrate responsibility to others involving having a television in our own room. Those are: 1) The television must be turned off when I leave the room or fall asleep. 2) The volume will not bother others.

20. Remind students of their project for Summative Assessment #3, a machine that will turn off the television. Remind students of the due date for the project and for the planning slip.

Science-

21. The object of this lesson is for students to learn about wave behavior.

22. Review the vocabulary that was introduced yesterday by having the class form a circle to do a class wave. Start the wave and as it moves around the circle, review a vocabulary word and ask how it could be shown in this circular class wave (see examples below). Then, have students perform that vocabulary word.

* Amplitude – to decrease, students keep elbows by their sides and only lift forearms and lower arms only to their waist- to increase, students raise their arms as high as possible and lower them to their knees

* Frequency – to decrease, remove some of the students from the circle – to increase, add the students back to the circle

* Wavelength – to decrease, students move closer together – to increase, students move farther apart

* Wave speed – to decrease, students decrease frequency, OR decrease wavelength – to increase, students increase frequency AND increase wavelength

* Crest– have students state in unison as each individual arm reaches the highest peak

* Trough - have students state in unison as each individual arm reaches its lowest point

23. The purpose of today’s science lesson is to have students discover that waves behave differently in different media.

24. Direct students’ attention to the five stations and the containers, coin, and measuring tool in each station.

25. Arrange students into five groups. Jobs for group members are dropper, timer, measurer, recorder, spokesperson, and clean-up crew. Ask if students are RESPONSIBLE enough to decide on jobs for themselves, or if you need to assign. Hopefully, they will take responsibility.

26. Distribute the Wave Behavior Data Sheets, one to each group. Students follow the instructions on the data sheet to complete the experiments.

27. Groups are allowed 3 minutes at each experiment station and thirty seconds to move in between stations. The teacher is the official timekeeper for this movement. Times may be adjusted to accommodate your students. Remember that specific short time periods keep students on task and help with behavior control. It keeps them responsible!

28. As students are completing the experiments, circulate and conduct individual mini conferences as a formative assessment. You are looking for understanding of wave behavior, selecting the correct measuring tools and unit of measure, and measuring. Give appropriate feedback, both affirming correct actions and responses and correcting any misunderstandings. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklists.

29. When groups have completed the rotation around the five stations, students return to a central point to figure the velocity of the waves.

30. Model how to figure the velocity of the wave using the v = d/t formula used in previous lessons. Leave the model on the board as students calculate the velocity of the waves from the experiments. Remind students that the velocities require that units of measure be labeled. As velocities are being calculated, circulate and give formative feedback to affirm that students are calculating correctly and using correct labels, or guide them towards correct calculations and labels. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklists.

31. Begin a class discussion of what was discovered from the experiments. Compare how the wave behaved in different media (refer to the vocabulary card and definition). Collect the data sheets and give written formative feedback as to the information recorded.

32. Students complete their daily journal entries by discussing why they think waves behave so differently in different media.

33. Collect the journals and give formative feedback as to whether the student understands that waves behave differently in different media. You are not assessing exact velocities and/or facts, but whether students understand the waves behave differently in different media. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklists.

Session Three: (Day nine of the unit)

34. Gain the students’ attention by showing one of the pictures of simple machines in the real world. Ask what kind of simple machine is shown and what task it makes possible. Mark the formative assessment checklists.
Making everything relevant –

35. Review the unit question and scenario from the lesson plan, Responsibility, completed on day two of the unit and now on display on the wall of the classroom.

36. Review the chart that displays the two ways that were chosen as the main ways to demonstrate responsibility to others involving having a television in our own room. Those are: 1) The television must be turned off when I leave the room or fall asleep. 2) The volume will not bother others.

37. Remind students of their project for Summative Assessment #3, a machine that will turn off the television. Remind students of the due date.

Science-

38. The objective of today’s science lesson is to assist students in transferring their knowledge of how waves behave in different media to manipulating sound waves in order to soundproof an area.

39. Review the conclusion from the wave behavior experiments performed yesterday by having a discussion with students and asking leading questions. Questions may include:
1) Yesterday we found that waves traveled best in water. Why do you think that is so?
2) Buttermilk is a liquid like water. Why didn’t the wave travel as well in the buttermilk as it did in the water?
3) What was the behavior of the wave when the coin was dropped into the sand? Why?
4) Do you think a liquid or solid allows waves to travel the easiest?
5) Do waves travel through air? How do you know?

40. Turn on a portable radio/CD player. Ask students how they are hearing the music. Elicit the responses that the music is traveling in sound waves.

41. Remind students of their responsibility goal of being able to control the sound others hear from the television in their room. Ask students what about the volume must be controlled. Elicit the response that the sound waves are what must be controlled in order to control the volume.

42. Present the vocabulary word, soundproof and its definition. Add them to the unit word wall.

43. Ask each student to turn to their closest neighbor to discuss how they might soundproof the radio. Allow about one minute for students to think and discuss. Then direct a sharing of the ideas the pairs have discussed. This think-pair-share activity should not take more than 5 minutes total, but allows the students an opportunity to think about soundproofing and waves.

44. Pass out the Soundproofing information sheet from the attached file. Discuss the three ways to stop sound waves. Post the teacher’s copy of the Soundproofing information for future reference.

45. Now that further soundproofing information has been gained, students return to their think-pair-share partners to plan how to soundproof the radio using only materials in the classroom. Allow two minutes for students to devise their plan.

46. Call on a pair of students to tell their plan. Soundproof the radio as described by the first pair and discuss the results. With each plan, ask the pair to use their knowledge of waves to explain why their plan will work. Allow all pairs to share their plan. Compare the results between plans.

47. Distribute Summative Assessment #4, I Can’t Hear You. Discuss the instructions and rubric. Agree on a due date, and have students write the due date on their paper. Answer any questions. Have students place the assessment and Soundproofing information sheet in their homework folder.

48. Students complete their daily journal entries by discussing what materials they think are better at soundproofing and why.

49. Collect the journals and give formative feedback as to whether the student understands that waves behave differently in different media. You are not assessing soundproofing ideas, but whether students understand the waves behave differently in different media. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklists.

#### Assessments

Formative assessments are given throughout the lessons. Criteria are explained in the procedures section of this lesson plan. The Formative Assessment Checklists are marked daily to record students’ progress.

Summative Assessment #1, Racing Velocity, is given to assess Standards previously taught in this unit.

Summative Assessment #3, I Am Responsible, is reviewed. This assessment also assesses Standards previously taught in this unit.

Summative Assessment #4, I Can’t Hear You, is presented. This tool assesses standards taught in this lesson. The instructions and rubric are discussed and a due date is agreed upon.

#### Extensions

1. All experiments can be done as whole group demonstrations rather than in small groups or in pairs.

2. Journals can be assessed every second day rather than every day. This would allow teachers to collect only half the journals each day.

3. Other media may be substituted for the five suggested as long a variety of thicknesses, as well as liquid and solid are used.

4. When reading journal entries, the feedback can be given in a color code system. Highlighted yellow means the response is right on target. Pink highlight means bring your journal and let’s talk. Using this method is fast for the teacher, gives student affirmative feedback, and allows for student/teacher conferences on concepts or misconceptions that need further explanations.

5. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=3262. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files, (if any).

1. Introduction to Waves has really cool interactivity for students to use to change the amplitude, wavelength, and phase shift of waves.
Introduction to Waves

2. This site is a teacher resource to learn more about the science of waves.
The PhysicsDepartment – Waves

3. Parts of a Wave is a reference for advanced students and teachers describing parts of a wave.
Parts of a Wave

4. Soundproofing Basic Principals is a reference for soundproofing information for the teacher.
Soundproofing Basic Principals

#### Attached Files

Vocabulary cards and a sample for the We Are Related activity.     File Extension: pdf

Wave information and charts.      File Extension: pdf

Wave Behavior Data Sheet.      File Extension: pdf

Soundproofing information.     File Extension: pdf