## Internet Field Trip on Fractions and Geometry

### Joseph Furner PhD

#### Description

This lesson is on fractions/geometry as it relates to parts and wholes. Students take an Internet field trip to learn more about fractions. ESOL strategies include using pattern block manipulatives and pairing ESOL and non-ESOL students on computers.

#### Objectives

The student reads, writes, and identifies proper fractions with denominators including 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 100.

The student compares and orders commonly used fractions, including halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths and eighths, using concrete materials.

The student translates problem situations into diagrams and models using whole numbers, fractions, and decimal notation in the context of money.

The student uses concrete materials to model equivalent forms of whole numbers and common fractions.

The student uses appropriate geometric vocabulary to describe two- and three-dimensional figures (for example, parallel and perpendicular lines, quadrilateral, right angle).

The student draws and classifies two-dimensional figures having up to six or more sides.

The student uses appropriate geometric vocabulary to describe properties of two-dimensional figures.

#### Materials

-Board or overhead projector for KWL (What they Know, What they Want to know, What they Learned) Chart
-Computers connected to the Internet; enough for each pair of students to work on one
-One Who Wants Pizza? knowledge sheet per student
-One No Matter What Shape Your Fractions are In knowledge sheet per student
-Pattern blocks; one set per pair of students
-Book: [Rabbit and Hare Divide an Apple]by Harriet Ziefert, copyright 1998 by Viking Easy-to-Read
-Math Response Journals; one per student
-Writing/coloring utensils for students (pencils, crayons, etc.) for drawing/coloring fraction shapes in journals

#### Preparations

1.Set up the computers so that the Web pages needed have desktop icons (shortcuts) so that the students can simply click on them to get to the Websites. (See Weblinks below.) Label the icon for the first site "Who Wants Pizza" and the icon for the second site "Fraction Shapes."

2.Also, have children's literature book, chart paper, copies of activity sheets, and pattern blocks available.

#### Procedures

Activating Knowledge
1. Set up a KWL chart on the board and have the students tell you what they already know about fractions as well as what they would like to learn. Fill in the KNOW and LEARN sections on the chart.

2. Review with the students the Pattern Block Shapes. Draw each and review their geometrical names on the chart paper before allowing students to begin work on the computers. Ask questions, such as, "How many red ones can fit in a yellow, etc.?", as well as questions about the names of the shapes.
Optional: Make a chart of the different shapes that the students can refer to while online.

3. Review properties of two-dimensional shapes along with correct names. Tell students to notice relationships, for example, that two trapezoids can fit together to make a hexagon, etc.

4. Tell the students that you are going to read a story about fractions. Read aloud the children's book [Rabbit and Hare Divide an Apple] by Harriet Ziefert. Discuss how the students' new knowledge of fractions could have helped Rabbit and Hare. Compare fractional parts in the story to the pattern block fractional parts.

5. Announce to the class that they will be taking an Internet field trip to learn more about fractions. Tell them that they will be going to two different Websites and filling out knowledge sheets (see Associated File) for each one as they work through the activities. The first Website is called "Who Wants Pizza?" and the second is called "Fraction Shapes." Provide desktop shortcuts for quick and easy access to the Websites.

6. Divide the class into pairs and give each student both knowledge sheets. Send them to the computers and tell them to start on the first Website, "Who Wants Pizza?" Review the rules already established about working with a partner cooperatively.

Gaining Knowledge
1. "Who Wants Pizza?" is a Website that introduces fractions and has interactive beginning fractions activities. This is where students learn what a fraction is and how fractions are represented.

2. Tell each pair of students to read the introduction and work together in answering the quiz questions on the computer. The directions are written on the "Who Wants Pizza?" knowledge sheet located in the Associated File. The students record their quiz scores in the spaces provided on the knowledge sheets and then answer the question on the sheets. Encourage students to draw out the problem in order to solve it, and then check the answer on the Website. Even though they are working in pairs, each student is responsible for turning in his or her own knowledge sheet for each Website. Be sure to circulate and assess students visually as they work. Offer feedback and guidance as needed.

Using Knowledge
1. Once the students have completed the activities at the first Website, give each pair a set of pattern blocks to use as they work through the activities at the second Website, "Fraction Shapes."

2. At this Website the students further explore their knowledge of fractions and see how parts of fractions relate to a whole. Questions 1-6 on the Website ask students to use pattern blocks to figure out how many of one shape will fit into another shape. Then the students must use their knowledge of these relations to answer questions 7-10 in the form of a fraction. Tell students to write their answers on the "No Matter What Shape Your Fractions are In" knowledge sheets (see Associated File) and check their answers online at the Website. Go over each of the geometric shapes with the pattern blocks used to review geometry concepts and terminology.

Applying Knowledge
1. Have students turn in both knowledge sheets after they have finished exploring the Websites. Use their responses to fill in the LEARNED section of the KWL chart.

2. Pass out the students' math response journals. Write the questions located at the end of the children's literature book on the board:
1) How many ways can you divide an apple?
2) What else can you divide in half?
3) Is it hard or easy to divide things equally?
Also add one more question for the students to think and write about:
4) How does this book relate to what you learned about fractions on the Internet?

3. Allow students to draw the pattern blocks and show each as a fractional part to the whole hexagonal shape in their journals. They may, for example, draw a hexagon for the apple and then use the trapezoid to make it into halves or two equal parts.

#### Assessments

Circulate and formatively assess students as they use the technology tools. Provide assistance for students who are experiencing difficulty and monitor accordingly. Make sure they remain on task when on the computers, are working together cooperatively according to your rules, and using the pattern blocks appropriately and correctly.

Collect knowledge sheets. Check answers and understanding.

Collect and read interactive Math Response Journals. Write your responses to students' journal entries (Practice for FCAT Response in knowledge sheets from the Internet Field Trip and Journal Writing from Children's Literature Reading.) Use the Rubric/Checklist in the associated file for assessing their responses.

#### Extensions

Continue with unit on fractions
Allow students to explore some other Fraction Internet sites both in school and at home with parents at:
Fresh Baked Fractions at:http://www.funbrain.com/fract/index.html

Have students list all the everyday situations that they can think of that involve fractions and how many geometric shapes can be divided into fractional parts.

Have students make and color in their own sets of pattern blocks out of paper or cardboard and label the name of the shape and fractional part to the whole of a hexagon.

Assign homework sheets that involve the use of pattern blocks and fractions - similar to the second Internet assignment.

Also for homework, have students list everything that they encounter between leaving school that day and arriving the next that involves or could involve fractions, and why they think fractions apply to these events or situations
-[The Hershey's Fraction Book]by Jerry Pallotta and Rob Bolste
-[Eating Fractions]by Bruce McMillan
-[Give Me Half] by Stuart Murphy and Brian Karas

Possibly have students make their own pizzas in class and look at not only cutting a pizza into different factional parts but also at how much is covered with a particular topping.

Explore other hands-on activities by AIMS Activities from their book, [Action With Fractions] by AIMS