## Marble Grab Bag: Certainly? Maybe? Impossible?

### Tara Ply

#### Description

Second graders use a hands-on activity and a data chart to explain the certainty, probability, or impossibility of drawing a particular color of marble from a bag.

#### Objectives

The student explains if an event is certain, probable, or impossible.

#### Materials

-Lesson Page 1: Marble Pull data chart page (See associated file)
-Lesson Page 2: Marble Pull question page (See associated file)
-Blue, red, yellow, and green crayons
-Blue, red, yellow, and green transparency pens
-Projector erase wipes or Baby Wipes
-Transparency 1: Marble Grab Bag illustration (See associated file)
-Transparency 2: Marble Pull data chart (See associated file)
-Paper or cloth sack
-9 each of red, yellow, green, and blue marbles

#### Preparations

1. Download and duplicate one copy of Lesson Page 1 and 2 for each child in your class.
2. Download Transparency 1 and 2 and duplicate one copy of each on transparency medium.
3. Prepare overhead projector area and screen.
4. Gather blue, red, yellow, and green ink transparency pens and erasing wipes.
5. Acquire a sturdy paper bag or fabric sack and nine each of red, blue, green, and yellow marbles.

#### Procedures

Note: This lesson is part of a series of lessons related to probability. Students have already worked with marbles in previous probability lessons.

1. Begin the lesson by reviewing previous lesson procedures for working with marbles as manipulatives.

2. Initiate a discussion of how the items that are placed in the bag affect what possible items can be drawn from the bag.

3. Explain to the class that today they will be using a special Marble Grab Bag and a data chart to find out whether a certain color of marble is certain to be drawn, probable to be drawn, or impossible to be drawn from the bag.

4. Display the Marble Grab Bag to the class. Tell them you have placed red marbles, blue marbles, and green marbles in the bag.

5. Dim the lights and turn on the overhead projector to project Transparency 1 (see Associated File) on the screen and direct students to look at the projected image.

6. Explain to the class that this is a peek inside the marble grab bag. Tell the class that there are nine red marbles in the bag, five blue marbles in the bag, and one green marble in the bag. Ask students to comment on which color they feel is most likely to be drawn from the bag. Let the class know that you will be returning the marble you draw back to the bag after each draw. Discuss responses. Ask the students to comment on whether or not it can be stated that one is certain to draw any particular color marble from the bag. Discuss responses. Ask the students if it is probable that one could draw a red marble from the bag, a blue marble from the bag, or a green marble from the bag on any given draw. Discuss responses. Ask the students if it is possible to draw a yellow marble from the bag. Discuss why it is impossible to draw a yellow marble from the bag.

7. Remove Transparency 1 (see Associated Files) from the projector plane. Place Transparency 2 (see Associated Files) on the projector plane. Tell the class that this is the data chart they will be using to record information about the marbles they will draw from the bag.

8. As students watch, reach into the Marble Grab Bag and draw out one marble. Call on a student to identify the marble’s color. Record the marble color under Draw 1 on the displayed chart by coloring the corresponding blank marble with the color drawn. Put the marble back in the bag. Repeat this process for nine more draws. When Draw 10 is completed, ask the students to comment on the color drawn the most, the color drawn the least, etc.

9. Call on several children for responses and observe during the discussion to determine whether or not students can correctly explain the certainty of drawing a particular color marble, the probability of drawing a particular color marble, and the impossibility of drawing a marble color not placed in the bag. Ask the students how things would change if all of the marbles were red. What if yellow marbles were added, purple marbles, etc.

10. Turn up the lights and turn off the overhead projector. Tell the class they will now use what they have learned to complete their own Marble Grab Bag data chart and answer some questions about what they have learned.

11. Tell the children to take out a pencil, a red crayon, a blue crayon, a green crayon, and a yellow crayon. Distribute a copy of Lesson Page 1 (see Associated File) to each child and ask them to look at the Marble Grab Bag data chart. Discuss the data chart with the class and review how to record each draw on the chart to make sure children will record their answers properly on their own papers.

12. As the students watch, empty the marbles out of the Grab Bag. Tell the class: We will now start with a new group of marbles. As the children watch, put four red marbles, four green marbles, one blue marble, and no yellow marbles in the bag. Shake the bag carefully. Direct the students to watch as you draw out each marble, then record the color of the marble on their papers by coloring the blank marble for each draw to match the marble you pulled from the bag. Put the marble back in the bag after each draw.

13. Pull one marble from the bag, hold it up for the students to see, call on a student to identify the marble color, and return the marble to the bag. Remind students to record the marble color on their papers. Circulate to monitor progress and assist students as needed. Repeat the process for nine additional draws.

14. Distribute Lesson Page 2 (see Associated Files). Tell the students they will now use their completed charts to answer a few questions about what they have learned. You may wish to work through the first few problems whole group before beginning independent work.

15. Give the students time to work independently, circulating as needed to assist and provide direction for low-performing students. Make observations of any difficulties students are experiencing, noting which children may need reteaching at the end of the lesson.

16. When students have had time to complete Lesson Page 1 and 2 (see Associated Files), lead a discussion of the data collected and displayed before collecting Lesson Pages 1 and 2 (see Associated File) for formative evaluation. Crayons and pencils may be put away as needed.

#### Assessments

1. The teacher observes during the whole group activity to determine whether or not students can correctly complete and use the Marble Pull data chart to determine the certainty, probability, or impossibility of drawing a particular color of marble from the bag.

2. Formatively evaluate the Marble Pull data chart produced by the student during the independent work portion of the lesson to determine whether or not the student correctly completed the Marble Pull data chart on Lesson Page 1 (see Associated Files), accurately determined the the certainty, probability, or impossibility of drawing a particular color of marble from the bag, and explained their answers in the free response area of the page. This is a low- stakes assessment for information gathering purposes only.

3. Formatively evaluate the students’ answers to the questions on Lesson Page 2 (see associated files) to determine whether or not the student correctly explained the certainty, probability, or impossibility of drawing a particular color of marble from the bag, based on the questions on the page.

4. Follow up with small-group reteaching sessions for any students who demonstrated incomplete knowledge of lesson concepts. Those students will then be given an additional opportunity to demonstrate progress prior to any summative assessment taking place.

#### Extensions

1. You may wish for students to work with Marble Grab Bags and Data Charts in classroom centers.

2. You may choose to have students work with Grab Bags using other manipulatives in a classroom center.

This on-line game source has games of all subject areas for K-12 students.
Funschool Games

#### Attached Files

Marble Grab Bag Transparency 2 - A Blank Data Chart.     File Extension: pdf

Marble Grab Bag Transparency 1 - The View of Inside the Grab Bag     File Extension: ppt

Marble Grab Bag Lesson Page 1 - A Blank Data Chart     File Extension: pdf

Marble Grab Bag Lesson Page 2 - Question Page     File Extension: pdf